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The opening scene from the movie "A Hard Day's Night"

"A HARD DAY'S NIGHT"

(John Lennon - Paul McCartney)

Leonard Cohen has been quoted giving his formula for songwriting.  He has stated that he strives to compose one perfect lyric line a day.  Since the average song contains approximately thirty lines, in a months' time, he has composed a perfect song.

While working with this formula would be excellent training for an aspiring songwriter, the most successful and prolific songwriting team of our generation did not have such a luxury.  John Lennon and Paul McCartney were straddled with an extremely busy schedule during their formative years.  Looking at 1964 alone, they performed an extensive 18-day marathon concert season in Paris, played throughout London, entered into the whirlwind of American Beatlemania for the first time, filmed their first motion picture, embarked on their first international tour and recorded two full albums as well as singles and an EP.

In between all of this, while stuck in hotel rooms and on planes, they wrote 22 original songs.  Most of these were written just days before the scheduled recording dates, many of them actually finished in the recording studio while they were recording them.  With input from their producer George Martin, final touches on arrangements were suggested and implemented 'on the fly.'

Since so many amazingly successful and admired compositions were premiered to the world in this year, one has to admit that the Lennon/McCartney songwriting team were something quite special.  They had a unique formula of their own, one that flies against all logic when it comes to studying the proposed recipe for songwriting you'll read about in books.

One incredible example of this is the title song they wrote for their first movie "A Hard Day's Night."  This made-to-order composition was written very quickly and finished in the studio on very short notice, but went on to become a hugely successful #1 hit all over the world and wound up winning them a Grammy Award.

Songwriting History

Although the song "A Hard Day's Night" was entirely written in 1964, its' origins go back to sometime in 1963.  "Ringo would always say grammatically incorrect phrases and we'd all laugh," George Harrison recalls.  McCartney concurs, "Ringo would do these little malapropisms; he would say things slightly wrong, like people do, but his were always wonderful, very lyrical, very Lewis Carroll, lovely.  They were sort of magic even though he was just getting it wrong."

As to one particular malapropism, Paul continues, "he said after a concert, 'Phew, it's been a hard day's night.'  John and I went, 'What?  What did you just say?'  He said, 'I'm bloody knackered, man, it's been a hard day's night.'"  Ringo explains, "I seem to be better now.  I used to, while I was saying one thing, have another thing come into my brain and move down fast.  Once when we were working all day and then into the night, I came out thinking it was still day and said, 'It's been a hard day,' and looked 'round and noticing it was dark, '...'s night!"

John Lennon liked the phrase so much that he used it in a poem he was writing for his book "In His Own Write."  The poem was entitled "Sad Michael," which includes the line, "He'd had a hard day's night that day, for Michael was a Cocky Watchtower."  Since the poem was written in late 1963, this dispels the rumor that Ringo came up with the phrase during the shooting of the movie.  Lennon himself credits Ringo for the phrase, saying in 1980 "I had used it in "In His Own Write, but it was an off-the-cuff remark by Ringo, one of those malapropisms - a Ringoism - said not to be funny, just said."

McCartney continues the story of how it became a title for a song.  "We'd almost finished making the film and this fun bit arrived that we'd not known about before, which was naming the film.  So we were sitting around at Twickenham studios having a little brain-storming session; director Dick Lester, us, Walter Shenson, Bud Ornstein and some other people were sitting around trying to come up with something and we said, 'Well, there was something Ringo said the other day...'."

Bud Ornstein was said to have exclaimed, "We just got our title," while Walter Shenson told United Artists, "You're never going to improve on it.  It's very provocative.  It means nothing and has nothing to do with the film.  But it sounds like a Beatles title."  Lennon continues the story, "I was going home in the car and Dick Lester...said 'We are going to use that title,' and the next morning I brought in the song."

April 13th, 1964, appears to be the day that the decision was made to name the film "A Hard Day's Night."  Therefore, that evening, John Lennon took it upon himself to write the title track to the movie himself.  Since McCartney had slid in his self-penned song "Can't Buy Me Love" as the current #1 Beatles hit around the world, Lennon asserted himself to make sure he got the next one.  He scribbled the lyrics on the back of a matchbox cover and went to sleep.

"John said, 'I'll write it,'" Paul continues, "and he did; he came back the next day with it.  I think he might not have had all the words.  I might have been in on that middle eight.  Something like that would only have taken twenty minutes.  That would have been plenty of time to run through it."  Since McCartney can't quite remember if he really did have a hand in writing the song, it's more than fair to estimate "A Hard Day's Night" as a 90/10 composition in favor of Lennon.

That next day, April 14th, John propped up the matchbox cover on the dressing-room table as he and Paul premiered the song to Walter Shenson.  With his approval, the song was ready for recording.

The Beatles in EMI Studio Two, 1964

Recording History

April 16th, 1964, was a last minute scheduled recording session at EMI Studio Two for recording the title track for their nearly completed first movie.  Three hours was all that was needed, from 10 am to 1 pm.  Present on this day, besides producer George Martin and engineers Norman Smith and Geoff Emerick, was journalist and friend Maureen Cleave as well as the film's director Richard Lester.

Maureen Cleave remembers helping put the finishing touch on the lyrics.  John apparently re-wrote the lyrics on the back of a birthday card meant for his son Julian, which contained the line "But when I get home to you, I find my tiredness is through, and I feel alright."  Cleave told him that she thought "my tiredness is through" was a weak line, so John immediately took out a pen, crossed out the line, and came up with "I find the things that you do will make me feel alright."

Cleave also emphasizes how new the song was for the group when they entered the studio.  "The song seemed to materialize as if by magic," she recalls.  "It consisted of John humming to the others, then they would all put their heads together and hum and three hours later they had this record."  Other evidence of how unrehearsed they were on this day can be heard by examining take one, which is included on the "Anthology 1" album.  McCartney's bass guitar flubs are evidence of his not being sure of the chord changes, as well as his concluding the vocal line on the bridge with the phrase "all through the night, oowh" instead of "tight, tight, yeah" as we're used to hearing.  Harrison as well performs a very crude guitar solo, which he apparently hadn't had time to work out yet.

Director Richard Lester's presence in the studio, on the other hand, was not strictly for observation purposes.  "Usually, the only people in the control room while the band played in the studio down below were George Martin, Norman Smith, and whoever was assigned to be the assistant engineer," explained Geoff Emerick, who was the assistant engineer on that day.  "On this morning, however, we were joined by the film's director, Dick Lester, and his presence was definitely not appreciated."

Dick Lester had a definite agenda in his being there that day.  "Dick kept insisting that something 'blockbuster' was needed for the opening of the film," Geoff Emerick continues, "hence John and George's crashing guitar chord that heralds the first notes of the song.  But that wasn't enough for Dick, who kept making one odd suggestion after another. 'Tell them I need it more cinematic,' he shouted to George Martin at one point."

George Martin concurs, "We knew it would open both the film and the soundtrack LP, so we wanted a particularly strong and effective beginning.  The strident guitar chord was the perfect launch."  On another occasion George commented, "In those days, the beginnings and endings of songs were things I tended to organize.  We needed something striking, to be a sudden jerk into the song.  It was by chance that (John Lennon) struck the right one.  We knew it when we heard it."

Although just what this unique introductory chord cosists of has been the subject of much debate, it appears to have been George playing a hybrid F chord on his twelve-string Rickenbacker with unique fingering as follows:  1st set of strings = G on the 3rd fret (pinky), 2nd set of strings = C on the 1st fret (index finger), 3rd set of strings = A on the 2nd fret (middle finger), 4th set of strings = F on the 3rd fret (ring finger), 5th set of strings = C on the 3rd fret (thumb), and 6th set of strings = G on the 3rd fret (thumb also).  Paul then plays a low D on his bass while John plays an Fadd9 chord on his six-string acoustic Gibson guitar as an overdub.  Also evident on the master tape is a piano, presumably played by George Martin, playing low D and G notes, probably also recorded as an overdub.

Another suggestion by Dick Lester was the song's conclusion.  "Lester kept insisting that he needed a 'dreamy' fadeout in order to segue into the movie's first scene," Geoff Emerick explains.  Both of Dick Lester's suggestions had to have been made prior to the first attempt at recording the song, since both of these elements (the introduction and conclusion) were attempted on the first take.

As for the actual performance of the group, they were in top form on this day.  "I hadn't been on a session with The Beatles for some six months," Emerick continues, "and I was impressed by how much more professional they had gotten in that relatively short span.  Not only was their playing tighter, but they were acting very much like seasoned veterans in the studio, knowing exactly what they were trying to accomplish and getting it done with a minimum of fuss, very much like a well-oiled machine."

This 'well-oiled machine' did do its' share of sputtering on this day however.  Even through to takes six and seven, McCartney still hadn't gotten his bass part down yet, nor had he worked out the bridge vocals or lyrics properly.  Since Harrison was having such a hard time with the guitar solo, he stopped performing it altogether with the intention of overdubbing it afterward.  Nonetheless, all four Beatles played their usual instruments and sang simultaneously.  The practice of putting down a rhythm track without vocals did not become standard practice until the following year.

With John and Paul "brimming with confidence" and Ringo "attacking his drums with a ferocity I hadn't seen or heard before," according to Emerick, take nine was the keeper.  Lennon announced that he was satisfied and George Martin agreed.  When Dick Lester called for another take, "George Martin was smart enough to keep him well away from the talkback microphone and pretended not to hear his dissent," Emerick remembers.

‘Track One’ of the four-track master tape contained the original rhythm track while ‘Track Two’ contained John and Paul's lead vocals.  It was now time for overdubs.  ‘Track Three’ comprised one elaborate overdub consisting of John double-tracking his lead vocals while playing an acoustic guitar (including the introductory chord), Paul double-tracking his vocal part and Ringo playing bongos during the verses and a cowbell during the bridges.

The last overdub sessions pertained to George Harrison's contributions to the song, which were overdubbed onto 'Track Four' of the master tape.  First to be tackled was his guitar solo.  Geoff Emerick explains:  "After some discussion about having Paul play the part instead...George Martin finally decided to instead employ the same 'wound-up piano' technique he had done the year previous on the song 'Misery.'  I was told to roll the tape at half speed while George went down into the studio and doubled the guitar solo on an out-of-tune upright piano.  Both parts had to be played simultaneously because there was only one free track, and it was fascinating watching the two Georges...working side by side in the studio...as they played the rhythmically complex solo in tight unison on their respective instruments."  George Martin undoubtedly recorded his piano contribution to the introductory chord at this time as well.

After this was done, Harrison then went over the "dreamy" fadeout that Dick Lester suggested.  Since he was having trouble performing this during the actual takes, the overdub was performed by slightly slowing down the tape.  This then completed the song.

The first mixing session for the song was on April 20th, with only George Martin, Norman Smith and engineer A.B. Lincoln present.  A mono and stereo mix was completed on this day which were made exclusively for United Artists to release on their soundtrack album.

April 23rd saw another mono mix of the song made which was intended for the record release only, not the movie.  Only George Martin, Norman Smith and engineer David Lloyd was present on this day.

June 9th saw more mix work for the song, first for mono tape copying so that two identical tapes of the best mono mixes could be sent to both United Artists and Capitol Records in America for release purposes.  Also prepared on this day was an extended mono mix to be used for the film.  An edit was performed to extend the ending and this was sent to United Artists for use in the movie only, not the soundtrack album.

A further stereo mix was needed for release on the British "A Hard Day's Night" album, so this was done with the rest of the tracks on June 22nd, 1964.  This session was attended by George Martin, Norman Smith and Geoff Emerick only.

Two more recording sessions that included the song occurred in 1965, although they comprised live performances by the band.  Both the August 29th and 30th Hollywood Bowl concerts were taped with the possible intention of being released as a live album.  The August 29th performance, which was originally produced by Engeman and engineered by Hugh Davies, was plagued with flaws, such as problems with McCartney's microphone, but the August 30th show was much more successfully recorded.  This version of "A Hard Day's Night," which was produced by Capitol vice-president Voyle Gilmore and engineered by Pete Abbott, was eventually released on the 1977 album "The Beatles At The Hollywood Bowl," after it was cleaned up by George Martin and Geoff Emerick.

 

Song Structure and Style

"A Hard Day's Night" follows the common structure that the Lennon/ McCartney songwriting team had used thus far, this being the verse/ verse/ bridge/ verse formula (or aaba).  With the addition of a quick introduction, a solo section, a repeat of the bridge, a lengthened final verse and a faded conclusion, we have pattern that has been used many times before but to good effect.

A noteworthy point to mention is the bluesy melody line and chord pattern that is used on this track.  This influence was creeping into their original songs more frequently at this point, as can be heard on both sides of their last single, namely "Can't Buy Me Love" and "You Can't Do That," as well as many of the tracks on their upcoming album, such as "When I Get Home" and "I'll Cry Instead."  Not to say that this was new in their arsenal, as traces of a 'blues' influence can be heard as early as "One After 909."

The much talked about introduction, the sudden crisp and vibrant opening chord, was described by George Harrison as an "F with a G on top."  It is actually a G eleventh suspended fourth.  It has also been described as a superimposition of the chords D minor, F major and D major.  Either way, it has a 'wake me from the dead' surprising urgency that demands attention, which works perfectly in its' intended purpose as the introduction to their first film.  (See detailed information about this chord in the "Recording History" section above.)

Upon close listening, you'll notice that the introduction, the guitar chord, is exactly two measures long.  At the beginning of take seven, Lennon informs the rest of the group that he would "tap toe" the beat after he and George Harrison played the opening chord so that everyone would know exactly when to come in.

After the introduction, we jump headlong into the twelve measure first verse, which is sung primarily by John alone except for the ninth and tenth measure.  These two measures feature McCartney singing a high harmony to the clever rising and falling melody line.  A second verse is then heard, which is identical except for different lyrics.

The major/minor chord structure of the song now appears as we enter the eight measure bridge.  Paul takes over the vocals (sung only because John couldn't reach the higher register) as the chords shift in a similar manner to the bridge on "From Me To You."

We now hear the first verse again.  "We would often repeat the first verse," McCartney explains.  "The last verse was no problem - 'Two hours is up!  C'mon, just put "Repeat 1".'  That's how a lot of our songs end, 'Repeat 1'...which was good if it was hooky, it meant that you've heard those lyrics twice, so we'd rammed 'em home, and it saved us having to think of a third verse."  Being that the song was written quickly and under pressure, repeating the first verse was economical as well as effective.  Because of the extended pattern used in this song, that first verse is actually heard three times in the song, which 'rams home' the title of the song for all to remember.

We now enter into the solo section of the song, which is heard above the twelve measure verse chord structure.  George Harrison's precise Rickenbacker 12-string flourishes, coupled with George Martin's piano mimicking, repeat itself twice throughout the first eight measures of this section, while the final four measures show a return of the Lennon/McCartney harmonies heard in the second verse.

After a carbon copy of the bridge is heard, the first verse is repeated for the third time, but this time it is extended three more measures in order to emphasize the final lyric line of the song three times.  This practice has also been heard before in The Beatles cannon, such as on "Please Please Me."

We then hear something that is quite uncommon thus far for The Beatles, although it became very common shortly thereafter, this being an actual 'fade-out' ending.  The conclusion, which was tagged on at director Richard Lester's insistence, comprised a jangling guitar riff played by Harrison on his above mentioned Rickenbacker 12-string.  The riff comprises notes from the strident chord heard at the beginning of the song, but played in a less commanding but suspenseful fashion.  An impressive final touch to a song that commands attention.

Writing a song made-to-order from a 'Ringoism' phrase for the title may have been difficult to write, especially in regards to not wanting the lyrics to sound forced.  "Usually, John and I would sit down and if we thought of something we'd write a song about it," McCartney relates.  "It seemed a bit ridiculous writing a song called 'A Hard Day's Night' - it sounded funny at the time, but after a bit we got the idea of saying it had been a hard day's night and we'd been working all the days, and get back to a girl and everything's fine."

You can't help but notice the not-so-subtle sexual references among the lyrics, one of which is the "things" that the girl will do that makes the singer "feel alright."  The second verse goes there again, referring to how working hard for his girl is "worth it" when she tells him she's 'gonna give him everything' when he 'gets her alone.'  So there was a little more that the singer had in mind than "feeling you holding me tight," as the bridge states.

The lyrics also suggest that Lennon was relating about his personal life in 1964.  After all, when you examine Mark Lewisohn's book "The Complete Beatles Chronicle," you can easily see that their day to day life was indeed a non-ending hectic 'hard day's night.'  They truly were 'working like dogs' and being sleep deprived.  It probably wasn't a fictional thought that he couldn't wait to get home to his wife Cynthia.  And since his hard work with The Beatles was financing the Kenwood twenty seven room mansion that he would purchase three months later, the lyrics about working "all day...to buy you things" definitely rings true.

Performance wise, John again is to the fore with his convincing vocal delivery.  His rhythm work done with electric guitar during the basic track, coupled with the acoustic guitar performed in an overdub, lays a proficient foundation for the song.  McCartney ends up hitting the nail on the head with his double-tracked vocals in the bridge and harmony work in the verses, even though it takes him all nine takes to perfect.  Equally difficult for Paul was his bass lines which, unlike him, were also giving him trouble throughout most of the song's takes.  Rather than saying he was having an off day, it was probably due to his unfamiliarity with the newly written song.

George Harrison was especially having trouble on this day for the same reason.  Engineer Geoff Emerick described George in his book "Here, There And Everywhere" as "even more ham-fisted than usual as he gamely plowed his way through one mediocre guitar solo after another."  But with focused attention at the end of the session on that day, he provided what became the impressively elegant touches to the song, namely the quickly paced triplet-based guitar solo (which was doubled by George Martin on piano) and the jangling fade-out riff.  This riff, which reportedly so inspired The Byrds Rickenbacker guitar sound used throughout their career, was an alteration between major and minor used as a counterpoint to the major/minor chord pattern used in the song.

Ringo's excited performance remained constant throughout, staying locked onto the open hi-hit sizzle which helped create the 'wall of sound' effect heard through the whole song.  With only one track open for overdubs, Ringo gamely plays bongos during the verses and then quickly switches to cowbell during the bridges while both John and Paul perform their overdubs at the same time.  In regards to Starr's performance, Geoff Emerick recalls, "I remember thinking that Ringo seemed especially 'on' that morning, attacking his drums with a ferocity I hadn't seen or heard before."

 

Capitol's "A Hard Day's Night" picture sleeve

American Releases

America first got to hear the song "A Hard Day's Night" on the highly anticipated United Artists soundtrack album by the same name, which was rush-released on June 26th, 1964, which was well before the intended general release of the film in the US on August 12th.  The album got its' compact disc release on January 21st., 2014, both the mono and stereo versions of the album being contained on a single CD.

Capitol followed quickly after by releasing the song as their third blockbuster single on July 13th, pairing it with another soundtrack song, "I Should Have Known Better" as the B-side.  This differed from the British release, which featured the non-soundtrack song "Things We Said Today" as the B-side.  The reason was that Capitol, although in competition with United Artists for record sales, wanted the movie to be promoted as much as possible to generate more sales for them.  Therefore, they could advertise the film, including a plug for United Artists, on the label of both sides of the single.

A partial release of the song appeared on November 23rd, 1964 on the album "The Beatles' Story."  Since Capitol didn't get permission to release "The Beatles Live At The Hollywood Bowl" album, which they intended to be available for the Christmas season, they settled for this hastily put together double-documentary album which included snippets of Beatles music.  The track "A Hard Day's Night - Their First Movie" started off with the first verse of the song.  Surprisingly, "The Beatles' Story" was also released on compact disc on January 21st., 2014, but only as contained in the 13 album box set "The U.S. Albums." 

The next appearance was on the first of many "greatest hits" packages to come.  "The Beatles/1962-1966" (aka "The Red Album") appeared in the US on April 3rd, 1973.  The mix used on this release was the mono mix that was used for the single even though two stereo mixes had been in existence since 1964.  The British release of this double album contained the stereo mix made on June 22nd, 1964 but, since Capitol only had the mono mix that they used for the single, they hastily put this on the album.  With the release of this compilation album on compact disc in 1993 and its re-mastered re-release on October 19th, 2010, the stereo mix has been substituted.

May 4th, 1977 saw a live version of the song released on the long-awaited album "The Beatles At The Hollywood Bowl."  This live album comprised a combination of tracks recorded during both their 1964 and 1965 visits to the Hollywood Bowl, "A Hard Day's Night" being recorded on August 30th, 1965.

On March 22nd, 1982, Capitol released a compilation album entitled "Reel Music," which featured songs from all of their movies.  This album coincided with the theatrical re-release of the movie "A Hard Day's Night," which was visually enhanced and included Dolby sound.  The album contained the first stereo version of the song heard in America.

Also released on March 22nd, 1982 was the single "The Beatles Movie Medley," which was a combination of snippets of seven Beatles songs that were featured in their movies.  The popularity of the single "Stars On 45 Medley," which featured many Beatles songs sung by soundalikes that became a US #1 hit, spurred Capitol to put this single together as well, which peaked at #12.  A bit of "A Hard Day's Night" is heard as the fifth of seven songs in the medley.

The song then appeared on the Capitol album "20 Greatest Hits," which was released on October 11th, 1982.  This now out-of-print album, which only peaked at #50 on the Billboard album charts, may have been one compilation album too many for American consumers.

In 1984, CBS Songs released an album entitled "Radio's Million Performance Songs," which featured fifteen diverse recording artists, including The Beatles, Elvis Presley, Carly Simon and Barry Manilow.  This promo album contained "A Hard Day's Night."

On February 26nd, 1987, the first batch of four Beatles albums on compact disc was released, including the original British mono version of "A Hard Day's Night."  This was the first time that American audiences had the album in the configuration that it was intended to be heard in.  The stereo re-mastered version came out on September 9th, 2009.

Capitol did decide to pair up "A Hard Day's Night" with the original British B-side "Things We Said Today" when they released it as a jukebox single in November of 1994.  This rare single, under the Cema series with the words "For Jukeboxes Only" on the label, was printed on white vinyl.

"Live At The BBC" was then released by Apple Records on December 6th, 1994, which included the version they recorded on July 14th, 1964 for the BBC program "Top Gear," which aired on July 16th.  A noticeable edit is heard during the solo section of the song, which was necessary to include the complicated solo section of the song that was edited in from the record.  George Martin apparently was scheduled to show up in BBC studios on that day to contribute his piano part but didn't show up.  In order to hide the truth, The Beatles do a fade-out while talking with host Brian Matthew in order to convince the listening audience that they were doing this live, not just playing the record.  On November 11th, 2013, this album was re-mastered, re-packaged and re-released.

On November 21st, 1995, the highly anticipated "Anthology 1" album was released which featured Take 1 of "A Hard Day's Night."  With this first run-through of the song, we hear a slightly slower version played by four musicians that are all unsure of themselves.  It's an interesting listen, knowing that within three hours, they came up with the confident, Grammy winning performance that we are all so familiar with.

November 14th, 2000, saw the release of the immensely popular compilation album "Beatles 1," which also included "A Hard Day's Night."  This album had reportedly sold 31 million copies worldwide.  Everybody seemed to want a copy of this album.

Not to be forgotten is the songs' brief inclusion on the November 21st, 2006 released album "Love," which was Grammy-winning soundtrack compilation album co-produced by George Martin and his son Giles Martin.  Being that The Beatles music was being mixed specifically for the Cirque du Soleil production of the same name, snippets of Beatles songs were interlaced with others to create an interesting time capsule of the '60s.  At the very beginning of the track "Get Back," you hear the ever-popular opening chord of "A Hard Day's Night," which is then heard played backward as the drum solo of the Abbey Road song "The End" is heard in the forefront. 

The original mono mix of the song has been re-mastered and is available in the box set “The Beatles In Mono,” which was released on September 9th, 2009.  This crystal clear version is the closest to what the EMI engineering staff intended for the public to hear.

 

Live Performances

After it was quickly determined that the song "A Hard Day's Night" would be the perfect candidate for The Beatles' next single, they did not delay in promoting it through performances.  The first known performance of the song was on a live appearance on the British TV show "Lucky Stars (Summer Spin)" on July 11th, 1964 in which they mimed their way through this and four other songs.  This was done one day after the songs' official British release as a single and album on July 10th.

After a live performance of the song on July 19th on the television variety show "Blackpool Night Out," they added it to their set list for their 1964 world tour already in progress.  The American leg of the tour featured it usually fixed as the next-to-last song, just before the closer "Long Tall Sally."  Therefore, the historic "Hollywood Bowl" show in Los Angeles on August 23rd featured the song, as well as the rest of the world tour, which finally ended on November 10th, 1964.

With the song "A Hard Day's Night" embedded on the minds of all their fans (especially due to the extraordinarily successful run of their first feature film), The Beatles continued to perform it well into 1965.  Their "Another Beatles Christmas Show" in London, which ran from December 24th, 1964 through January 16th, 1965, featured the song, as did most of their 1965 World Tour, which began in Paris on June 20th.

During the North American portion of the tour, they performed the song at their famous Shea Stadium concert on August 15th, 1965.  This world record concert audience of 55,600 fans wasn't the only group of people to see them perform the song, as the whole show was filmed by Sullivan Productions (Ed Sullivan's company) for television broadcast.  Although it was broadcast on March 1st and August 27th, 1966 in Britain, it didn't air on American television until January 10th, 1967.

This tour also included two more appearances at the Hollywood Bowl on August 29th and 30th, the second performance of the song recorded and preserved on "The Beatles At The Hollywood Bowl" album, released in 1977.  The next day's performance of the song at the Cow Palace in San Francisco, which incidentally ended the 1965 tour, appears to be the last time The Beatles ever performed "A Hard Day's Night."

Two recordings/performances of the song were made for BBC radio in 1964, one being the aforementioned "Top Gear" recording made on July 14th (broadcast on July 16th) which appears on the "Live At The BBC" album.  The second recording was made on July 17th for an edition of "From Us To You," which aired on August 3rd.

 

Peter Sellers

Conclusion

While on the set filming their second motion picture "Help!" on April 28, 1965, comedian and friend Peter Sellers arrived at Twickenham studios to present The Beatles with the Grammy Award that they won for the song "A Hard Day's Night."  The award was won in the category of "Best Performance by a Vocal Group" of 1964.  This humorous segment was filmed and shown in America on the Grammy Awards program "The Best On Record" on May 18, 1965.

Some reviewers have identified the chilling opening chord of "A Hard Day's Night" as the official beginning of the middle period of The Beatles career, which appropriately came to a close with the equally chilling final chord of "A Day In The Life."  It has been suggested that this segment of their career was the most creative and influential period of music history.  With the strident first chord of "A Hard Day's Night," the music world had entered into a wonderful new era. 

Song Summary

 "A Hard Day's Night"

Written by:  John Lennon / Paul McCartney

  • Song Written: April 13th and 14th, 1964
  • Song Recorded: April 16, 1964
  • First US Release Date: June 26, 1964
  • First US Album Release: United Artists #UAS 6366 "A Hard Day's Night"
  • US Single Release: Capitol #5222                                                         
  • Highest Chart Position: #1 (2 weeks)
  • British Album Release: Parlophone #PCS 3058 "A Hard Day's Night"
  • Length: 2:32
  • Key: G major
  • Producer: George Martin
  • Engineers: Norman Smith, Geoff Emerick

Instrumentation:

  • John Lennon - Lead Vocals, Rhythm Guitars (1964 Rickenbacker 325 / Gibson J160E)
  • Paul McCartney - Lead and Harmony Vocals, Bass Guitar (1963 Hofner 500/1)
  • George Harrison - Lead Guitar (1963 Rickenbacker 360-12 Fireglo)
  • Ringo Starr - Drums (1963 Ludwig Downbeat Black Oyster Pearl), Bongos, Cowbell
  • George Martin - Piano (1905 Steinway Vertegrand upright)

 Written and compiled by Dave Rybaczewski

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