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“RUBBER SOUL”

(ST 2442)

Released December 6th, 1965

Once again, the pressure was on.  The strict policy The Beatles were under since their signing with EMI’s Parlophone label was to produce two albums per year, notwithstanding their hectic schedule otherwise.  They fulfilled this agreement for the first two years of their contract but, since their first album for 1965, the soundtrack to their motion picture “Help!,” wasn’t released until August of that year, they felt extremely rushed.

After their second American tour was completed on August 31st of that year, they worked hard between themselves to scrape together enough material to fill the required fourteen tracks for their sixth British album as well as two additional songs for a year-end single.  This time around, though, The Beatles decided only to feature original material on this release, which was a policy they kept to throughout the rest of their career (with the slight exception of “Maggie Mae” on the “Let It Be” album).  Therefore, they didn’t delve back into their old Cavern repertoire to resurrect some old favorites as they had on last year’s “Beatles For Sale” album.

With confidence high and only a month to work with, they proved themselves up for the task.  “I felt we were progressing in leaps and bounds, musically,” remembers Ringo Starr.  “Some of the material on…the 1965 ‘Rubber Soul’ album was just brilliant; what was happening elsewhere was nothing like it.” 

Origin Of The Album

Never before had there been a Beatles’ album title that raised so many eyebrows.  Instead of using a song title, a movie title or a cute catch phrase (like “With The Beatles” or “Beatles For Sale”), they came up with something unique.  But what exactly is a “rubber soul?”

Almost three weeks into recording the album, they still hadn’t decided on a title.  During an interview on November 1st, 1965, Paul stated concerning the album, “the title of which could be ‘It’s The Bloody Beatles Again!” or ‘Eight Feet Away.’”

Hints at an explanation of where “Rubber Soul” came from can be found from different sources.  “That was Paul’s title,” John Lennon said many years later, adding, “It was like ‘Yer Blues,’ I suppose, meaning English soul…just a pun.”  Barry Miles, co-author of Paul McCartney’s book “Many Years From Now,” claims it “was a reference to rubber-soled shoes as well as soul music.”

Paul himself, however, fully explains how the title came about.  “I think the title ‘Rubber Soul’ came from a comment an old blues guy had said of Jagger.  I’ve heard some out-takes of us doing ‘I’m Down’ (from June 14th, 1965) and at the front of it I’m chatting on about Mick.  I’m saying how I’d just read about an old bloke in the States who said, ‘Mick Jagger, man.  Well you know they’re good – but it’s plastic soul.’  So ‘plastic soul’ was the germ of the ‘Rubber Soul’ idea.”  In fact, at the end of the first take of “I’m Down” the tape captures Paul exclaim, “Plastic soul, man, plastic soul!

As far as their songwriting on the album, it was obvious that a change was in the air.  Paul explains:  “The direction was moving away from the poppy stuff like ‘Thank You Girl,’ ‘From Me To You’ and ‘She Loves You.’  The early material was directly related to our fans, saying, ‘Please buy this record,’ but now we’d come to a point where we thought, ‘We’ve done that.  Now we can branch out into songs that are more surreal, a little more entertaining.’  And other people were starting to arrive on the scene who were influential.  (Bob) Dylan was influencing us quite heavily at that point.”

Ringo fills us in on the reason for the changes in the songwriting on the album:  “Grass was really influential in a lot of our changes, especially with the writers.  And because they were writing different material, we were playing differently.  We were expanding in all areas of our lives, opening up to a lot of different attitudes.  I feel that we made it on love songs (all the initial songs were love songs).  Now we get to ‘Rubber Soul’ and begin stretching the writing and the playing a lot more.  This was the departure record.  A lot of other influences were coming down and going on the record.”

“’Rubber Soul’ was the pot album and ‘Revolver’ was the acid,” Lennon explained in 1972.  “The drugs are to prevent the rest of the world from crowding in on you.  They don’t make you write any better.”

“Songwriting for me, at the time of ‘Rubber Soul,’ was a bit frightening because John and Paul had been writing since they were three years old,” George Harrison remembers.  “It was hard to come in suddenly and write songs.  They’d had a lot of practice.  They’d written most of their bad songs before we’d even got into the recording studio.  I had to come from nowhere and start writing, and have something with at least enough quality to put on the record alongside all the wondrous hits.  It was very hard.”

 

The Beatles with George Martin in EMI Studio Two, 1965

Recording The Album

“I think ‘Rubber Soul’ was the first of the albums that presented a new Beatles to the world,” producer George Martin explains.  “Up to this point, we had been making albums that were rather like a collection of their singles and now we really were beginning to think about albums as a bit of art in their own right.  We were thinking about the albums as an entity of its own and ‘Rubber Soul’ was the first one to emerge in this way.”

“We were just getting better, technically and musically, that’s all,” John Lennon said in interview in 1971.  “Finally we took over the studio.  In the early days we had to take what we were given – we didn’t know how we could get more bass.  We were learning the technique on ‘Rubber Soul.’ We were more precise about making the album, that’s all.”

Ringo Starr gives much detail to the recording of this album.  “It was getting to be really exciting in the studio.  We did it all in there: rehearsing, recording and finishing songs.  We never hired a rehearsal room to run down the songs, because a lot of them weren’t finished.  The ideas were there for the first verse, or a chorus, but it could be changed by the writers as we were doing it, or if anyone had a good idea.”

Ringo elaborates on how a song would be introduced:  “The first form in which I’d hear a newly written tune would be on the guitar or piano.  It’s great to hear the progression through takes of various songs.  They’d change dramatically.  First of all, whoever wrote it would say, ‘It goes like this.’  They would play it on guitar or piano, singing it every time – they would be learning to sing the song while we were all learning to play it, over and over again.”

Regarding their use of marijuana during recording sessions, John explains, “We weren’t all stoned making ‘Rubber Soul,’ because in those days we couldn’t work on pot.”  Ringo confirms this:  “When we did take too many substances, the music was shit, absolute shit.  At the time we’d think it was great, but when we came to record the next day we’d all look at each other and say, ‘We’ll have to do that again.’  It didn’t work for The Beatles to be too deranged when making music.  There’s very little material where we were out to lunch.  It was good to take it the day before – then you’d have that creative memory – but you couldn’t function while under the influence.”

Strictly speaking, the fourteen songs required for the “Rubber Soul” album, as well as “We Can Work It Out” and “Day Tripper” that was supplied for their next single, was recorded in approximately four weeks (October 12th to November 11th, 1965).  In between these dates they also recorded two more projects, one being “The Beatles’ Third Christmas Record” that was issued only to members of their fan club, and the other being an instrumental song they called “12-Bar Original” that they hoped would be good enough to be included on the “Rubber Soul” album.  It wasn’t.

Although Capitol Records in the US decided to keep the title of the album for the American release, they did take some liberties regarding the track list.  Four of the songs were omitted, these being “Drive My Car,” “What Goes On?,” “If I Needed Someone” and a song they hand-picked for a future single, namely “Nowhere Man.”  They did have a surplus of two tracks from the British “Help!” album that didn’t see the light of day in America yet, so they included them on “Rubber Soul,” namely “I’ve Just Seen A Face” and “It’s Only Love.”  Since these two songs were recorded on June 14th and June 15th of 1965 (respectfully), the time span in the recording studio for the American version of “Rubber Soul” ranges from June 14th to November 11th, 1965.

 

Cover Art

“We took over the cover and everything,” said John Lennon in 1970 about the “Rubber Soul” album.  “The sleeve’s finished too, and the picture on the front is pretty good,” George Harrison said just before the album was released.

Photographer Robert Freeman explains:  “It was becoming very difficult to get the four together for a photo session.  The photograph for ‘Rubber Soul,’ the last album cover in which I was involved, was taken in the garden of John’s house in Weybridge, the central point for three of them.  The distorted effect in the photo was a reflection of the changing shape of their lives.”

Paul fills in some of the details about the cover:  “When we came to choose which of Bob’s photos we should use for the cover of ‘Rubber Soul,’ he visited us at a friend’s flat one evening.  Whilst projecting the slides on to an album-sized piece of white cardboard, Bob inadvertently tilted the card backwards.  The effect was to stretch the perspective and elongate the faces.  We excitedly asked him if it was possible to print the photo in this way.  Being Bob, he said, ‘Yes,’ and the cover to our album ‘Rubber Soul’ was decided.”

At The Beatles request, Capitol left the cover intact for the American release, including the photo montage on the reverse side.  Finally, the group had enough clout to call the shots - even in the US. 

Success of “Rubber Soul”

While the first Capitol album, “Meet The Beatles!,” contained twelve songs, their next five albums only contained eleven, which was done purposely by the record label to generate more income as well as make more tracks available for future releases.  The American soundtrack album for “Help!,” however, went back to the inclusion of twelve tracks, although five of these were instrumental selections from the movie.  Because they felt they had something special with “Rubber Soul,” Capitol decided to once again feature twelve tracks on this album.

Another indication of the label’s confidence in the album was the fact that they printed two million copies for its initial run, which was the most Capitol ever printed at one time up till that point.  It paid off very nicely for them, selling well over four million copies in America alone.

Finally, Capitol had so much trust that the album would be successful that it was the first American Beatles album that didn’t have a single released from it.  This was commonplace in Britain but unheard of in the US.  This didn’t stop radio stations from picking songs off of the album for radio play, “Michelle” being the favorite.  In order to help record buyers locate where they could purchase this song, Capitol included a sticker that read “Hear Paul sing Michelle” affixed to the cover of “Rubber Soul.”

To show how popular the songs on this album became, the 1973 compilation album “The Beatles/1962-1966” (aka “The Red Album”) featured six tracks off of the British “Rubber Soul” album, the most from any album on this release.

Some record buyers in the 60’s were treated to a different sounding “Rubber Soul” than anywhere else in the country.  A master cut of the stereo mixes for the album that were created in New York have a very noticeable increase in reverb that was not present in the original mixes.  Therefore, some stereo pressings of the album sound much more “wet,” as some audiophiles would say, than all of the other copies available at the time and therefore today.  If you happen to own one of these copies, which have “W8#2” pressed into the trail off area on side one and “W14#1” on side two, I would hold on to it if I were you.

As far as chart action is concerned, it only took three weeks for the album to reach the top of the Billboard album charts where it stayed for six straight weeks.  It then spent two weeks at number two, being eclipsed by “Whipped Cream & Other Delights” by Herb Alpert’s Tijuana Brass.  (With an album cover like that, you can see why!)

 

Conclusion 

This quote from George Harrison in the 90’s sums up nicely how The Beatles themselves forever felt about the album:  “’Rubber Soul’ was my favorite album, even at that time.  I think that it was the best one we made; we certainly knew we were making a good album.  We did spend a bit more time on it and tried new things.  But the most important thing about it was that we were suddenly hearing sounds that we weren’t able to hear before.  Also, we were being more influenced by other people’s music and everything was blossoming at that time; including us, because we were still growing.”

 

CLICK ON THE SONG TITLES BELOW TO READ THE IN-DEPTH HISTORY OF THE SONGS ON "RUBBER SOUL"

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