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“PAPERBACK WRITER”

(John Lennon – Paul McCartney) 

Unconventionality had become the trend of 1966 for The Beatles – even when it came to writing songs for the worldwide singles market.  While much care was given when Lennon and McCartney wrote album tracks, special attention was usually the norm when creating what would be a contender for their next single.  It needed to have a catchy melody line that would stick in your mind, a melodic hook or riff that would identify the song, and the content of the lyrics would have to be about love, since that subject was determined to be the most accessible to pop audiences of the time.

While the influence of marijuana has been widely credited as the catalyst to the maturity of their songwriting in the later months of 1965, as contained on “Rubber Soul,” the influence of both LSD and Eastern music had a great impact on their output during mid 1966, the results evident on “Revolver.”  Therefore, within less of a years’ time, The Beatles songwriting had changed dramatically as all audiences couldn’t help but notice.

As was the habit during the recording of an album, the group needed to identify what song had the commercial appeal to be earmarked as their next single and, thereby, be omitted from the album.  “George Martin received a memo from the EMI brass,” recalls engineer Geoff Emerick, “reminding him that a new Beatles single was soon due.” Since their last British single, “We Can Work It Out/Day Tripper,” was released way back in early December of 1965 and the group was on hiatus for a few months to rest up from their incredibly hectic schedule the previous year, pressure was high to get a new Beatles single in the shops“John and Paul were immediately put to work,” Emerick continues.  “Whoever wrote the stronger song – with George Martin as referee – would win the prize:  the prestigious A-side.”

They began recording their next album on April 6th, 1966 and were concentrating more on studio technique than ‘cranking out hits.’  By April 13th, the only song they had completed was the Indian influenced George Harrison track “Love You To,” which obviously wouldn’t fit the bill for their next single (as good of a song as it was).  Much work was also done on the psychedelic experiment that was to be entitled “Tomorrow Never Knows,” although even this was yet to be complete.  Preliminary tracks were also laid down for “Got To Get You Into My Life,” but was nowhere near ready for release.

The fourth song they set to record, however, was more quickly recorded and was deemed suitable for a quick release as a single.  While it did have many of the usual hallmarks of a hit pop record of the time, such as the catchy melody line and a melodic guitar riff, the lyrical content was very much out in left field for 1966.  Instead of romance, the only mention of a relationship was of “a dirty man” whose “clinging wife doesn’t understand.”  Nonetheless, “Paperback Writer” was rushed out as their next single, topping the charts internationally.

“It’s not one of our best songs,” Lennon dryly explained at the time, “but it was the only one we had ready for the record release date.”  While his second comment may be true, his first could easily be contested by fans around the world that have grown to love the song, to this day being considered an undeniable staple of their catalog.

 

Original lyric sheet of "Paperback Writer," circa 1966

Songwriting History

“We always try to do something different,” related McCartney back in 1966.  “The idea’s a bit different.  Years ago, my Auntie Lil said to me, ‘Why do you always write songs about love all the time?  Can’t you ever write about a horse or the summit conference or something interesting?’  So, I thought, ‘All right, Auntie Lil.’  And recently, we’ve not been writing all our songs about love.”

British disc jockey Jimmy Savile claims that he was present when, backstage after a show, the inspiration hit for writing the song.  According to Steve Turner’s book “A Hard Day’s Write,” “John had been principal writer of The Beatles’ last five singles and so it was generally agreed that it was Paul’s turn to come up with something.  Savile recalled John asking Paul what he was going to do because there were only a few days left before they were due to record.  ‘Paul told him that one of his aunts had just asked if he could ever write a single that wasn’t about love,’ remembers Savile.  ‘With that thought obviously still in his mind, he walked around the room and noticed that Ringo was reading a book.  He took one look and announced that he would write a song about a book.’”

While this recollection obviously has merit, there is some discrepancy regarding the timing of this event.  If there were only “a few days left” before the recording date, this would place the time frame in late March or early April of 1966.  While the group did not perform any concert appearances, television or radio programs throughout all of the early months of 1966, they did cooperate in a taped interview at a photographic studio, The Vale in the Chelsea area of west London, on March 25th (afterward posing for the famous Robert Whitaker “butcher” photographs).  Assuming that Jimmy Savile was present on this day, we can estimate that “Paperback Writer” began its initial writing on this date.

"Well, this came about because I love the word ‘paperback,’” remembered McCartney.  This fascination may have germinated in his subconscious mind from early Beatle memories of 1960, according to poet and pop music critic Royston Ellis.  As related in much detail in the 2008 Philip Norman book “John Lennon: The Life,” Ellis became close with John and Paul, even asking the early Beatles to play music to accompany the public reading of his poetry.  “Although I was writing poetry books then,” remembers Ellis, “if they asked me what I wanted to be I would always say ‘a paperback writer’ because that’s what you had to be if you wanted to reach a mass market."

With these ideas implanted in his mind, Paul travelled out to John’s Kenwood home for a songwriting session.  “You knew, the minute you got there,” Paul relates, “cup of tea and you’d sit and write, so it was always good if you had a theme.  I’d had a thought for a song and somehow it was to do with the Daily Mail so there might have been an article in the Mail that morning about people writing paperbacks.  Penquin paperbacks was what I really thought of, the archetypal paperback.”  Since the “Daily Mail” was a regular feature in John Lennon’s home (being the inspiration for “A Day In The Life” the following year), McCartney revealed in a 2007 interview that he had, previous to this writing session, read an article about an aspiring author in the magazine (possibly British novelist Martin Amis) which may have gotten him going in that direction.  However, Paul insisted years ago that “there’s no story behind it and it wasn’t inspired by any real-life characters.”  Not specifically nor consciously anyway.

“I would often start thinking away and writing on my way out, and I developed the whole idea in the car,” McCartney remembered, “I came in, had my bowl of cornflakes and said, ‘How’s about if we write a letter:  ‘Dear Sir or Madam,’ next line, next paragraph, etc?”  In his book “Many Years From Now,” he explains further:  “I arrived at Weybridge and told John I had this idea of trying to write off to a publishers to become a paperback writer, and I said, ‘I think it should be written like a letter.’  I took a bit of paper out and I said it should be something like, ‘Dear Sir or Madam, as the case may be…’ and I proceeded to write it just like a letter in front of him, occasionally rhyming it.  And John, as I recall, just sat there and said, ‘Oh, that’s it,’  ‘Uhuh,’  ‘Yeah.’  I remember him, his amused smile, saying, ‘Yes, that’s it, that’ll do.’  Quite a nice moment:  ‘Hmm, I’ve done right!  I’ve done well!’  And then we went upstairs and put the melody to it.  John and I sat down and finished it all up, but it was tilted towards me, the original idea was mine.  I had no music, but it’s just a little bluesy song, not a lot of melody.”

The early months of 1966 had the group writing music in imitation of their new infatuation with Indian music which stays on one chord.  “We would be sitting around,” Paul recalls, “and at the end of an Indian album we’d go, ‘Did anyone realize they didn’t change chords?’”  Three out of four of their first recordings in EMI Studios of 1966 featured songs that attempted to stay on only one chord throughout, “Tomorrow Never Knows” and “Love You To” being the two besides “Paperback Writer.”  As it turned out, though, all three of these songs did venture away from the home chord at times, but very minimally.

“Then I had the idea to do the harmonies and we arranged that in the studio,” Paul continues.  George Martin went on record to describe the “contrapuntal statements from the backing voices – no one had really done that before” and admitted that The Beach Boys were “a great inspiration” with regard to this song.  With “Sloop John B” just entering the British charts and The Beatles being just given a preview of the entire “Pet Sounds” album, the trademark Beach Boys harmonies were emulated for “Paperback Writer.”

As for songwriter credits, John comments in his 1972 Hit Parader interview:  “I think I might have helped with some of the lyrics.  Yes, I did.  But it was mainly Paul’s tune.”  While Paul may not remember it quite this way, as detailed above, he seems to indicate that John definitely played a part, if not lyrically then melodically, saying “we went upstairs and put the melody to it.  John and I sat down and finished it all up.”

 

The Beatles in EMI Studios, 1966

Recording History

On April 13th, 1966, their fifth recording date for what became the “Revolver” album, The Beatles entered EMI Studio Three at 8 pm, their second session that day, to concentrate on what would become the A-side of their next single.  The earlier session on this day (2:30 to 6:30 pm) saw George’s song “Love You To” to completion, which allowed an hour-and-a-half break to switch gears entirely in preparation for a more pop oriented track.

Richard Lush made his Beatles session debut on this day as 2nd engineer, a role he was destined to repeat with frequency during their recording career.  Eighteen-year-old Lush remembers:  “I was pretty nervous…I knew that Beatles sessions were private.  One was rarely allowed to open the door and peek in, and I certainly took a while before they knew me as Richard.  Until then it was ‘Who is that boy sitting in the corner hearing all of our music?’  But everything worked out in the end.”

The primary engineer for this session, the equally young Geoff Emerick, recalls much specific details regarding this session in his book “Here, There And Everywhere.”  Emerick relates:  “Paul strolled into the studio, marched straight over to the piano and confidently proclaimed, ‘Gather round, lads, and have a listen to our next single.’  John gave Paul a sideways glance of disapproval – he never liked losing – but nevertheless joined Ringo and the two Georges for a private concert.  Paul pounded out a catchy melody, instantly hummable, filled with memorable hooks.  I couldn’t make out the lyric entirely, but it seemed to involve book writing.  Each time he would come to the chorus, Paul would stop playing and gesture to John and George Harrison, pointing out the high harmony part he planned on assigning each.  By the time he finished the first run-through, it was obvious to everyone in the room that this was an instant hit.”

Right from the start, Paul wanted a new technique devised concerning the sound of the bass guitar on this song.  “Even before he got down to the brass tacks of teaching the others their parts,” Emerick continues, “Paul turned to me.  ‘Geoff,’ he began, ‘I need you to put your thinking cap on.  This song is really calling out for that deep Motown bass sound we’ve been talking about, so I want you to pull out all the stops this time.  All right, then?’”

“I nodded an affirmative.  Paul had long been complaining that the bass on Beatles records wasn’t as loud or as full as the bass on the American records he so loved.  He and I would often get together in the mastering room to listen intently to the low end of some new import he had gotten from the States, most often a Motown track.  Even though we had DI (Direct Inject) boxes available, I rarely used them to record Paul’s bass…Instead, I followed the standard EMI directive of placing a microphone in front of his bass amplifier.  The bass sounds we were getting were decent – partly because Paul had switched from his signature Hofner violin ‘Beatle’ bass to a beefier Rickenbacker – but still not as good as what we were hearing on those American records.”  For the record, as explained in Mark Lewisohn’s book “The Beatles Recording Sessions,” engineer “Jerry Boys has a clear recollection of John Lennon demanding to know why the bass on a certain Wilson Pickett record far exceeded any Beatles disc.”  Therefore, John and Paul both were very vocal about wanting a heightened bass quality to their records.

Emerick contoninues, "Fortunately, as Paul and John turned to George Harrison and began showing him the chords to ‘Paperback Writer,’ inspiration struck.  It occurred to me that since microphones are in fact simply loudspeakers wired in reverse…why not try using a loudspeaker as a microphone?  Logically, it seemed that whatever can push bass signal out can also take it in – and that a large loudspeaker should be able to respond to low frequencies better than a small microphone.  The more I thought about it, the more it made sense.”  However, as other data indicates, this experiment was left off for the next day.

“’Paperback Writer’ is son of ‘Day Tripper’ – meaning a rock’n’roll song with a guitar lick on a fuzzy, loud guitar,” stated John Lennon in 1980.  However, who played the “fuzzy, loud guitar”?   “Well, what happened was that we fell in love all over again with my Epiphone Casino,” McCartney explained in the November 2005 Guitar Player magazine, “which I played on a lot of Beatles records – the ‘Paperback Writer’ riff, the solo on ‘Taxman,’ and so on.  It always feeds back nicely.”

Upon listening to the first attempt of the two rhythm tracks recorded on this day, the vibrantly booming bass guitar is not present, this obviously being overdubbed onto the complete second take of the song.  Instead we hear Ringo on drums (tapping out a beat on the hi-hat during what would be the a cappella vocal sections of the song, John playing rhythm on his newly acquired Gretsch “Chet Atkins” 6120 electric guitar (also quietly strumming guitar chords during the same sections), the “fuzzy” lead guitar and a subtle, almost indecipherable, bass guitar.  Given Paul’s quote above, it appears it indeed was Paul playing lead guitar which leaves the bass guitar work to George Harrison, since this rhythm track did not have any overdubs at this time.  Adding to this conclusion are photos of the session on this day which shows George playing another new instrument to The Beatles line-up, a Burns Nu-Sonic bass guitar.  John’s Gretsch electric guitar was apparently never used again by the group after this day.  George, however, appears to have used this short-scale Burns bass guitar a couple more times during the “Revolver” sessions.

With a good amount of overdubs needed to complete the song, including all of the vocals, the session was complete for the day (or should I say, next day) at 2:30 am.  Six-and-a-half-hours being needed to get just the rhythm track may seem excessive but, as Geoff Emerick recounts, “The Beatles had done no rehearsing beforehand; there had been no preproduction whatsoever.  What an incredible experience it was to see each of the songs develop and blossom within the confines of those four walls!”

The next day, April 14th, 1966, the group filed back into EMI Studio Three to perform all of the overdubs necessary to complete the recording of “Paperback Writer.”  Five hours were used to accomplish these tasks, from 2:30 to 7:30 pm with Phil McDonald back in his usual role as 2nd engineer.

Now was the appropriate time to experiment with creating the beefier bass guitar sound Paul asked for the previous day.  “I broached my plan, gingerly, to Phil McDonald,” remembers Geoff Emerick,  “His response was somewhat predictable:  ‘You’re daft; you’ve completely gone around the twist.’  Ignoring him, I took a walk down the hall and talked it over with Ken Townsend, our maintenance engineer.  He thought my idea had some merit.  ‘Sounds plausible,’ he said.  ‘Let’s wire a speaker up that way and try it.”

“Over the next few hours, while the boys rehearsed with George Martin, Ken and I conducted a few experiments.  To my delight, the idea of using a speaker as a microphone seemed to work pretty well.  Even though it didn’t deliver a lot of signal and was kind of muffled, I was able to achieve a good bass sound by placing it up against the grille of a bass amplifier, speaker to speaker, and then routing the signal through a complicated setup of compressors and filters – including one huge experimental unit that I secretly borrowed from the office of Mr. Cook, the manager of the maintenance department.”

“With renewed confidence, I returned to the studio to try it out for real.  Paul…looked at me in a funny way as I set up the big, bulky loudspeaker in front of his amp instead of the usual microphone, but he didn’t say anything, and neither did George Martin…They returned their attention to the rehearsals, giving me the opportunity to cautiously raise the fader carrying the bass signal.”

Paul then overdubbed his distinctive bass guitar performance for the song using his Rickenbacker 4001S.  Emerick continues:  “Paul’s distinctively fluid bass line…consisted mostly of notes played high up on the lowest strings, which helped round out the tone further still.  It sounded absolutely huge, so much so that I became somewhat concerned that it might actually make the needle jump out of the groove when it was finally cut to vinyl.  But Paul loved the sound.”

The other overdubs performed on this day consist of Paul’s powerful lead vocals (double-tracked), Ringo on tambourine, and three sets of harmony vocals from John and George, some of which was sung in falsetto.  Most noteworthy of these harmonies is the title line of the nursery rhyme “Frere Jacques” as heard in the third and fourth verse.  “It was Paul’s idea that John and George should rekindle childhood memories with this unusual backing vocal,” says the book “The Beatles Recording Sessions.”  “You can’t really hear the words,” George Martin explains, “because they are so soft.  I must confess, I didn’t spot this little diversion on the number, but George (Harrison) reassured me that it was just one of those weird things that happened for the sake of it.  There was no connection whatever between the famous Brother Jack and the knack of writing paperbacks.”

“According to studio documentation,” states Andy Babiuk’s book “Beatles Gear,” “another new sound tried out for ‘Paperback Writer’ came from a ‘jangle box’ put through a Leslie rotating speaker.  The jangle box was also known as the ‘tack piano,’ and was Abbey road’s modified Steinway upright piano.  The instrument’s hammers were brushed with cellulose, which then dried hard, and some of its strings were re-tuned.  The result was a percussive jangling piano sound.”  This overdub, with Paul on piano no doubt, was apparently deemed unsuitable for the song and left out of all mixes created for “Paperback Writer.” 

At 7:30 pm, the session was over; giving the group an hour break before beginning what was to become the B-side of the single, namely “Rain.”

In the meantime, from 7:30 to 8:00, George Martin, Geoff Emerick and Phil McDonald huddled in the control room of EMI Studio Three to create the mono mix that was used for the worldwide release.  Two attempts were made to create this mono mix, presumably their second attempt being the keeper.

Creating this mono mix was a good amount trickier than most.  “It is the first time that we have had echo on a Beatles track,” George Martin remembers.  Geoff Emerick explains how they achieved the “fluttering echo at the end of each chorus added at the mix stage.  It was accomplished by routing the vocals into a separate two-track machine and then connecting that machine’s output to its input.  At the end of each chorus, Phil had the job of slowly increasing the record level until it just reached the point of feedback.  If he went one notch too far, the echo would get out of control, so there were many attempts at doing the mix.  Every time he’d go past that point, or not far enough, we’d have to stop and remix the entire song again.”

“That’s because, in the archaic EMI way of thinking, edits were frowned upon.  Management didn’t want anyone taking a razor to master tapes, so multritrack editing – which would allow us to join the start of one take onto the end of another – was rarely allowed in those days…we’d have to get the mix right from start to finish.  If we messed up the middle, or even in the very end of the fadeout wasn’t quite right, we would have to start all over again…As a result, you got that adrenaline going, and the mixes themselves became performances.”

The “separate two-track machine” mentioned above eventually ended up in the hands of one of The Beatles.  “I bought off EMI this big machine for 3 pounds,” explains George Harrison, “with a sort of speed thing on it.  It gave us the replay head.  It was the thing we did ‘Paperback Writer’ on, you know, ‘Paperback writer, writer, writer, writer, writer.’  It’s ancient.  It looks like it’s got a sort of oven at the bottom of it.  It’s just an antique…they’re called STEEDs.  I’ve got (it) in the kitchen now.”

Facilitating Geoff Emerick’s concern about the needle jumping out of the groove of the record, he recalls:  “It was eventually left to my mate Tony Clark to cut the master lacquer”  Tony Clark explains:  “It was EMI’s first high-level cut and I used a wonderful new machine just invented by the backroom boys, ATOC – Automatic Transient Overload Control.  It was a huge box with flashing lights and what looked like the eye of a Cyclops staring out at you.  But it did the trick.  I did two cuts, one with ATOC and one without, played them to George Martin and he approved of the high-level one.”

Since the song was destined for the next single and not to be included on the ensuing “Revolver” album, no stereo mix was made at the time.  However, since no new Beatles album would be released for the Christmas buying season that year, EMI decided to release its first “greatest hits” package, entitled “A Collection Of Beatles Oldies.”  Since “Paperback Writer” would definitely be included in this set, and there would be stereo copies of the album made available, a stereo mix would have to be made.

This stereo mix was made on October 31st, 1966 in the control room of EMI Studio One by the same team of Martin, Emerick and McDonald.  They intended to mix this song along with “I Want To Hold Your Hand” and “She Loves You” in stereo for the first time but, since “Paperback Writer” took two hours to do, they left the other two for another day.  “Unfortunately, the stereo mix…does the song no justice,” Emerick admits.  “It’s completely disjointed, and it isn’t at all the balance that we intended.  To me, the mono mix is much more exciting.”

The stereo mix places the rhythm track entirely on the left channel along with the tambourine, while the overdubbed bass guitar and an isolated set of harmonies (the higher pitched “paperba…” harmonies that begin each chorus and the “Frere Jacques” harmonies) are entirely on the right channel.  The lead vocals as well as the other harmonies are centered in the mix.  The stereo mix is also slightly shorter, the “paperback writer” phrases at the end totaling just over four instead of six in the mono mix.  Paul’s lead vocals in the harmonized choruses are also noticeably higher in volume on this stereo mix.  Incidentally, the channels were reversed when the stereo mix was first released in the US.

A newer stereo mix of "Paperback Writer" was made by Giles Martin (son of George Martin) and Sam Okell at Abbey Road Studios in 2015 for inclusion on the re-release of the compilation album "Beatles 1."  This excellent stereo mix positions the elements of the recording in a more coherent manner with less drastic seperation between the left and right channels.  And since the "fluttering echo" heard periodically in the song was initially done during the mixing stage, and this was a new mix, Giles Martin had to recreate the effect, which results in something less forceful but more palatable for the listener.  A job very well done!

Between March 22nd and June 15th, 1993, Paul McCartney and his band recorded a version of the song which was released on his “Paul Is Live” album later that year.  Also, sometime between July 17th and 21st, 2009, another live rendition of the song was recorded by Paul at New York’s Citi Field for the live album “Good Evening New York City.”

 

Song Structure and Style

This is a pretty straightforward format, consisting of verses and a repeating chorus which acts as an introduction.  The structure ends up as “(intro) chorus/ verse/ verse/ chorus/ verse/ verse/ chorus/ outro” (or abbabbac).  No instrumental (or solo) section is needed but, with such a characteristic guitar riff puncturing through the speakers, it is definitely not missed.

The intro (or first occurrence of the chorus) is eight measures long and can be divided up into two four-measure sections.  The first four measures are strictly a cappella as performed by multiple overdubs by Paul, John and George in a somewhat answering “row, row, row your boat” fashion.  Their recent infatuation with The Beach Boys is definitely felt here, “Sloop John B” and the highly respected layered harmony ending of “God Only Knows” undoubtedly being the catalyst to this heavily rehearsed orchestration of the repeat of the song’s title.

A noted similarity can easily be made here with “Nowhere Man,” which also begins with a detailed four-measure a cappella introduction.  Since this was the previous US single, “Paperback Writer” makes the second Beatles single to begin with a cappella harmonies from the group.  So goes the continued deserved reputation of The Beatles as an excellent songwriting force with harmonies as their definite strong suit.

Paul’s predominantly double-tracked lead vocals begin things by singing the title phrase of the song as stretched out between the first two measures, allowing the last syllable to be held for the next two measures as a harmonic texture for the harmonies that are to be layered on top of it.  Three harmony overdubs are added, one being sung in falsetto by John and George in harmony to Paul’s lead vocal but only going as far as singing “paperba….” and holding it out until nearly the entire four measures are complete.

The second harmony from John and George consist of the “paperback writer” phrase starting on the second measure when Paul sings the word “writer” and then those harmonies holding out the word “writer” from the third measure throughout the fourth measure (actually mistakenly stopping a little short each time the chorus is heard).  The third harmony overdub consists of John and George layering on another falsetto “paperback writer” phrase that stretches out between the third and fourth measure.  Although it’s hard to tell, Paul’s voice may very well have been included in these harmony overdubs.  Nonetheless, much time and work was needed to put all this detail together.

All of the harmonies chop off as Ringo slaps his snare drum on the final eighth beat of the fourth measure, the vocal microphones still being up during the remaining four measures of the intro/chorus (witnessed by some slight clearing of throats).  Ringo, while hesitating at first, comes in on the four-beat of the fifth measure with a pounding bass drum/snare rhythm that takes us through the remainder of this section.  The obvious highlight of these remaining measures, however, is the thrillingly distorted guitar riff from Paul which zig-zags its way through an entire octave and is repeated twice.  Paul was proud enough of this riff that he performs a slight variation of it as an overdub onto “Got To Get You Into My Life” on June 17th.

The last two beats of the eighth measure of the intro/chorus debuts Paul’s startling bass overdub which also acts to introduce the first verse of the song and, thereby, the beginning of the story.  “Dear Sir or Madame” starts the first twelve-measure verse which also introduces John’s rhythm guitar, Ringo’s hi-hat to complete his full drum kit rock beat, and the drummer’s overdubbed tambourine.  Paul’s vocals are double-tracked but also treated to ADT for even more prominence.  Eight full measures on the chord of G finally changes on the ninth measure when the title of the song is heard, going to C for a couple of bars.  We then bounce right back to G after three-part-harmony kicks in on another repeat of the title phrase.  Simultaneously, the drums, bass and rhythm guitar accentuate the word “writer” with cymbals crashing, while Paul reprises the guitar lead in the eleventh and twelfth measures.  The final measure brings some trademark drum fills from Ringo as a falsetto harmony extends to the final end of the verse.

The second verse is also twelve measures long and is practically identical except for different lyrics and a surprising final two measures.  As the harmonies and guitar riff are ringing out in the eleventh measure, the engineers take an audio snapshot of what is there and fill the twelfth measure with an echo-laden image which is then quickly faded down as the twelfth measure is complete.  A pretty amazing production feat for 1966!

An interesting sub-point to be brought out here is that, from listening to the original session tape from this overdubbed recording, the harmonies at this point staggered away uncomfortably and left a somewhat embarrassing gap.  Whether the addition of the echo was an afterthought left for the mixing stage to cover over these awkward gaps, or whether this was all planned during the actual recording sessions, has never been determined.

Immediately following this effect was an identical repeat of the chorus, the only difference being a distinguishable “cough” heard from a vocal microphone being left up.  Then begins verse three, the most prominent difference between this and verse one being the addition of John and George’s falsetto “Frere Jacque” harmonies.  Another variation here is that the guitar riff Paul plays in the final measure concludes with two lower notes this time around.  Verse four then follows, repeating the exact pattern of verse two with the echo effect at the end.  Listen, however, for a falsetto harmony (presumably John) coming in late on his first “Frere.”

A final occurrence of the chorus then follows, the echo at the end starting right on the word “writer” in the eleventh measure this time around on the mono mix, making quite a startling impression as compared to the first time it was heard in the second verse.  (The stereo mix is quite subdued by comparison.)  The second half of this final chorus is characterized by the guitar riff now being played both times with the lower ending notes as heard at the end of the third verse.  Also, Paul’s throbbing bass trills at the end take up the full eighth measure instead of just the last two beats as previously in the song.  And not only is there noticeable coughing on the open microphones, someone (possibly George) is putting in a little practice hitting their upcoming falsetto harmony.

The song’s conclusion comprises a vamping on the G chord from the rhythm track that includes a simple repeating guitar phrase from Paul.  Vocal wise, two sets of intertwined harmonies are repeated until the song fades away, the first being a staggered repeat of the title phrase sung in falsetto that stretches out to two measures in imitation of the lead voice in the chorus.  Just as this ends another set of harmonies enter with a quick repeat of the song’s title.  With some adlib fluctuations of the first phrase setting in on their fourth repeat (“wri-i-i-ter”) and some interesting gurglings from John’s rhythm guitar occurring in places, the song fades off into the sunset.  Yet another Beatles timeless classic is born!

Paul again is center stage, understandably because of this being primarily his creation.  His top-notch vocals, bass and lead guitar is extremely fitting for the occasion, Paul knowing full well how to continue the aura and allure of the group on the radio airwaves.  John’s songwriting inventiveness of the period, as incredible as it was, was somewhat less commercial due to his infatuation with his chemical mind-expanding activities of the time.

Speaking of John, his rhythm guitar work and vocal hijinks on this track shows him as cooperative and contributive.  George’s bass work may have been mostly panned out of the finished track, but his harmonies show him as a team player with vocal ability.  Ringo does well in reprising his drum fills (mostly unheard during the “Rubber Soul” sessions) and puts in an impressively powerful performance on the drum kit, aided and abetted by Geoff Emerick’s above mentioned engineering experiments.  And Ringo can also really rattle that tambourine.

Lyrically, the open-letter to a publishing house by a want-to-be author is engaging enough for minimal scrutiny, although it needn’t be taken too literally as a complete story.  If that would be the case, as the book “A Hard Day’s Write” explains, “it’s about a paperback writer who has written a novel based on another novel, which is also about a paperback writer…The lyric was driven more by the sound of the words than their logic.”

As it is, Paul is beseeching the receiver of his letter “won’t you read my book, it took me years to write.”  Paul explains that his book is “based on a novel by a man named Lear,” which seems to be a reference to Victorian painter Edward Lear.  While he didn’t write novels, he did write nonsense poems and songs that John was a fan of.  If you’ve ever read either of Lennon’s books, you’d understand why he would like Edward Lear’s writings.  Lear’s limericks include this famous passage:  “They dined on mince, and slices of quince, which they ate with a runcible spoon; And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand, they danced by the light of the moon.”

Paul’s novel consists of a family consisting of “a dirty man,” “a clinging wife” and a son who has a “steady job” at the “Daily Mail.”  Paul doesn’t disguise his intent, saying both “I need a job” and “I need a break,” indicating his frustration at spending years in authorship of a “thousand page” novel without someone to publish it.  He’s even willing to sell the rights to the publishing house, confidently stating “it will make a million for you overnight.”

Although McCartney has released a couple of books, “Blackbird Singing” and “High In The Clouds: An Urban Furry Tail,” the former was a collection of favorite song lyrics written in poem form while the later was a children’s book co-written by Philip Ardagh.  We have yet to see a McCartney novel but, since he tackles everything from Classical and Ballet to painting and writing movies, I’m sure we’ll see a novel at some point.  Maybe he’ll even find a cure for cancer!

 

US picture sleeve

American Releases

Capitol Records couldn’t wait until June 10th, 1966 to release the latest Beatles single as Britain did, so they rushed it out eleven days earlier on May 30th of that year.  While “Paperback Writer” was the least selling Beatles single in their home country since 1962’s “Love Me Do,” it became a million seller in the US and, according to “The Billboard Book Of Number One Hits,” the single “made the second largest leap to number one of the rock era.  It debuted on the Hot 100 at number 28 during the week of June 11th, 1966, moved to 15 and then broad-jumped to number one on June 25th, becoming The Beatles’ 12th chart-topper in America.  The only single to make a bigger leap to number one was also by The Beatles, ‘Can’t Buy Me Love.’”  This record was first broken, however, in 2002 by Kelly Clarkson.  Also noteworthy is the fact that Frank Sinatra’s “Strangers In The Night” interrupted the two-week reign of “Paperback Writer” in the top spot.

Interestingly, this single, with “Rain” as its b-side, was promoted in trade magazines in Britain using the famous “butcher” photo that graced the American album “Yesterday…And Today,” but without much of a stir.  It’s also curious to note that Capitol, having already acquired the tapes for this recent single, did not include the songs on this album.  With a number one single on the pop charts, this newly released make-shift album did not include either side of this smash hit.  Instead, they requested three never-before-released songs from the upcoming “Revolver” album.  I guess too many hit songs on one album was not considered a good idea at the time.

The next release of “Paperback Writer’ was on February 26th, 1970 on another make-shift album entitled “Hey Jude” (originally called “The Beatles Again”).  The stereo channels were reversed from what was intended by the EMI production staff but we didn’t know any better.  We were just happy to have a stereo mix of the song.  Hot off the success of “Abbey Road,” it peaked at #2 on the Billboard album charts.  The "Hey Jude" album received a compact disc release on January 21st, 2014.

Next came “The Beatles/1962-1966” (aka “The Red Album”), the first official “greatest hits” package in America.  This double album was released on April 19th, 1973, peaking at #3 on the Billboard album charts.  The stereo channels were still reversed.  This collection was released on compact disc on September 20th, 1993, the re-mastered version then released on August 10th, 2010.  The stereo channels were in their proper place on both of these re-releases.

October 11th, 1982 saw another compilation album entitled “20 Greatest Hits,” “Paperback Writer” closing side one of this collection.  With the advent of MTV, the album only peaked at #50 on Billboard, but at least it reversed the stereo channels back to what George Martin wanted.

With the compact disc era blooming, all of the group’s singles and EP tracks were compiled onto two volumes entitled “Past Masters,” Volume Two containing “Paperback Writer.”  This was released on March 7th, 1988 and, although only reaching #121 on Billboard’s album chart, it ended up going platinum.  When The Beatles catalog was re-mastered in 2009, it was re-released as a double CD simply entitled “Past Masters” on September 9th, 2009.

On January 24th, 1996, Capitol re-released the original single under the Cema Series “For Jukeboxes Only” on red vinyl, this becoming quite a collectors’ item as time goes on.

On November 13th, 2000, the highly successful compilation CD "Beatles 1" was released which included "Paperback Writer" among the 27 songs that originally peaked at #1 either in Britain or America.  
A re-mastered version of this album was released in 2011 and a newly mixed version was released on November 6th, 2015.

September 9th, 2009, was when the complete Beatles catalog in mono was released in a re-mastered condition, this set appropriately called “The Beatles In Mono.”  The original extended mono mix of the song appeared on an included album entitled “Mono Masters.”

Two live Paul McCartney albums also feature “Paperback Writer,” the first being “Paul Is Live” (released on November 8th, 1993) and the other being “Good Evening New York City” (released on November 17th, 2009).

 

Video shoot for "Paperback Writer," May 19th, 1966

Live Performances

Following the pattern set on November 23rd, 1965 of filming television performances beforehand so as not to bother making trips to their TV studios (see “Day Tripper”), the group met on May 19th, 1966 at 10 am to do just this once again.  Instead of convening at a film studio, the promotional videos were done in familiar surroundings – EMI Studio One.  This was the first experience of The Beatles working with director Michael Lindsay-Hogg, who would more famously direct the “Hey Jude” and “Revolution” films two years later as well as what became the “Let It Be” movie.

Three separate video-tapings were made of the group miming “Paperback Writer” on this day, one in color specifically for “The Ed Sullivan Show” in the US and two in black-and-white for the British shows “Goodbye Lucky Stars” (the very last episode of the successful series “Thank Your Lucky Stars”) and “Ready Steady Go.”  Two videos were also shot of them performing the b-side “Rain” on this day.

After the color video of “Paperback Writer” was shot between 1:10 and 2:00 pm, they broke for lunch and then taped the two black-and-white British videos of the song between 3:30 and 6:15 pm.  Immediately after this was complete, the group gathered round and taped a special introduction segment especially for “The Ed Sullivan Show.”  Ringo, acting as spokesman for the group, explains that they are too busy to come to New York to do the show because “everybody’s busy these days with all the washing and the cooking.”  An interesting thing to notice is that this segment opens with all four Beatles holding up transparencies of the famous “butcher” photographs in front of their faces.  The color promotional video of “Paperback Writer” even includes Paul holding up the same “butcher” transparency in front of his face as he begins the first verse.

The next day, May 20th, 1966, the group met at the beautiful Chiswick House in London to film outdoor promotional clips for the same two songs.  For “Paperback Writer,” they were filmed sitting on a bench as well as miming to the song in the statue garden and inside a walled garden.  Ringo is seen inconspicuously leaning and/or sitting in these areas of the location since his drums were not brought along to mime to.  Although this promo clip was filmed in color, given the gorgeous surroundings of the location, it was screened in black-and-white on “Top Of The Pops” in Britain.  Also quite noticeable in all four of the above promos is Paul’s chipped front tooth, the result of a recent moped accident.

Although the group had sworn off live television performances, they surprisingly made one exception.  The popular British TV show “Top Of The Pops” never enjoyed the opportunity of having The Beatles on one of their live shows.  They did receive the promo films of their new single (as mentioned above), but producer Johnnie Stewart thought he’d try one more time to get them to make a live appearance on his show.

Beatles manager Brian Epstein explains:  “On Monday (June 13th, 1966), Stewart wrote me a letter saying that although he had scheduled a Beatles film clip for the program, there had been an unprecedented demand for them to appear live in the show and would they reconsider their decision not to.  I put it to the boys late on Tuesday (June 14th), and they said yes.”  Being that they were making good progress on the song “Here, There And Everywhere” in EMI Studio Two at the time they were asked, they obviously were in a positive mood.

They arrived at Studio Two of Television Centre in London just before 2:30 pm on Thursday, June 16th, 1966, for extensive rehearsals and, as the closing segment of the show, they mimed both “Rain” and “Paperback Writer” (in that order) live in front of the cameras.  Policy at the time dictated that the taped performance be recorded over to conserve tape, so after this performance of “Paperback Writer” was aired a couple more times in Britain, it then became a product of UK memory from that time on.  Since it can no longer be seen (who knows, it may resurface someday, someway), some viewers have commented that The Beatles were not very good ‘mimers’ on that day.

“Paperback Writer” also has the distinction of being the only Beatles song recorded in 1966 that was performed live on stage by the group.  Their two brief tours of the year, the last they ever made, featured the song as the next-to-last selection on their set list, no doubt because of it being their latest single at the time.

Their international tour, which began in Munich, West Germany, commenced on June 24th, 1966.  After continuing in Germany, playing in Essen and Hamburg, they were off to Japan and then The Philippines, where they concluded this tour on July 4th.

They retained the exact same set list for their final US tour, which began on August 12th in Chicago and ended with the monumental final live performance of their career at Candlestick Park, San Francisco, on August 29th, 1966.  Other highlights of the tour included Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Memphis, Los Angeles and a somewhat triumphant return to New York City’s Shea Stadium.

“Around this time we were starting to miss out a lot of record tracks on live shows,” recalls George Harrison.  “’Paperback Writer,’ for instance, was all double-tracked, and it sounded pretty crummy on stage.  So what we did with it (in the American tour at least) was get to the point where it was particularly bad, and then we’d do our ‘Elvis legs’ and wave to the crowd, and they’d all scream and it would cover that.  As Paul has said, the screaming did cover a lot of worrying moments.”  This was done on their international tour as well, evidenced in the Japan footage of the song where George waves to the crowd during the a cappella harmonies of the second chorus.  This ushers in manic screams from the Japanese audience just in time to cover over their attempts at recreating the layers of harmonies they recorded in the studio.

The first Paul McCartney tour to feature the song was “The New World Tour,” which stretched from February 18th (Italy) to December 16th (Chile), 1993.  After dropping the song for quite awhile, he included it in the set list for his “Summer Live ‘09” tour, running from July 11th (Nova Scotia) to August 19th (Arlington, Texas) of that year.  A performance from this tour can be seen on the DVD included in the “Good Evening New York City” set.  The song was also included in his brief “Good Evening Europe Tour,” going from December 2nd (Hamburg) to December 22nd (London), 2009.  His extensive “Up And Coming Tour” included the song as well, this tour beginning on March 28th, 2010 (Phoenix) and finally ending on June 10th, 2011 (Las Vegas).  Then, his “On The Run Tour” continued his use of the song, this tour commencing on July 15th, 2011 at Yankee Stadium in New York City and ending on November 29th of 2012 in Edmonton, Canada.  Paul’s “Out There!” tour also included the song, this tour beginning in Belo Horizonte, Brazil on May 4th, 2013.                                                    

Conclusion

While George may have referred to “Day Tripper” as a bona fide “rocker,” and John referred to “Ticket To Ride” as a “heavy metal record,” it was “Paperback Writer” that blew both those songs out of the park, their first single with loud distorted lead guitar.  It’s true that The Who, The Kinks and The Rolling Stones had all beaten them to the punch, and The Beatles were following their lead in this case, it should be noted that “Paperback Writer” weaved in the raucous feel of these other artists with the cascading harmonies of The Beach Boys as well as the droning feel of the music from India.  Quite a feat for four “sh*t-kickers from Liverpool,” as Ringo once described the group.

Paperback Writer

Written by:  John Lennon / Paul McCartney 

  • Song Written: March - April, 1966
  • Song Recorded: April 13 and 14, 1966
  • First US Release Date: May 30, 1966
  • US Single Release: Capitol #5651
  • Highest Chart Position: #1 (2 weeks)
  • First US Album Release: Apple #SW-385 (SO-385) “Hey Jude” (“The Beatles Again”)
  • British Album Release: Parlophone #PCS 7016 "A Collection Of Beatles Oldies”
  • Length: 2:26 (mono), 2:18 (stereo)
  • Key: G major
  • Producer: George Martin
  • Engineers: Geoff Emerick, Richard Lush, Phil McDonald

 Instrumentation (most likely): 

  • Paul McCartney -  Lead and Harmony Vocals, Lead Guitar (1962 Epiphone ES-230TD Casino), Bass Guitar (1964 Rickenbacker 4001S)
  • John Lennon - Rhythm Guitar (1962 Gretsch 6120), harmony vocals
  • George Harrison -  Bass Guitar (1965 Burns Nu-Sonic), harmony vocals
  • Ringo Starr –  Drums (1964 Ludwig Super Classic Black Oyster Pearl), tambourine

 Written and compiled by Dave Rybaczewski

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